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ผู้เขียน หัวข้อ: What is Purchasing Department  (อ่าน 70 ครั้ง)


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เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 11:50:52 AM
What is Purchasing Department
Purchasing Department: Characteristics, Functions

The purchasing department is the section of a company responsible for all activities for the business acquisition financing of raw materials, spare parts, services, etc., as required by the organization. It provides a service that is the backbone of many industrial, retail, and military organizations.

Ensures that supplies necessary to operate the business are ordered and kept in inventory. This department is at the center of successful supply chain management, and is responsible for minimizing the cost of ordered products, controlling inventory levels, and establishing strong relationships with suppliers.

A good purchasing department will demand quality from suppliers and will follow up on orders from the beginning to the reception. Help other departments identify needs, manage the requisition process, and obtain competitive prices. They usually act as controllers to ensure compliance with budgets.

Act as trusted advisers to senior management
The purchasing department is involved in corporate planning and budgeting at a high level. This makes it possible to design reverse engineering costs and explore potentially less expensive and / or higher quality alternatives.

Drive supplier innovation
More than just demanding the lowest price, the purchasing department works with suppliers to reduce the underlying cost of their products and services. They are intimately involved with "the life cycle of innovation", from initial idea to manufacturing and continuous improvement.
Provide insight into key vendor data
Companies can draw on this information to create predictive analytics, providing a deeper insight into markets.

Manage and mitigate supply chain risk
Economic crises have taught the value of being aware of the stability of suppliers. The purchasing department has a much clearer view of that area than any other part of the organization.

Promote agile staffing and talent development
It is necessary to cross functional and geographic boundaries to find the right candidates for the purchasing department.
In some cases, the answer is in outsourcing or using shared service organizations.

Obtaining materials
For a manufacturing company this could include raw materials, but it could also include tools, machinery, or even the necessary office supplies for the sales team and secretaries.
In a retail business, the purchasing department must ensure that there are always enough products on the shelves or in warehouses to keep the store well stocked.

It is especially important to keep your inventory warehouse at a reasonable level. Overinvesting large amounts of money in inventory could lead to stock problems and a lack of capital for other types of expenses, such as research and development, or advertising.

Evaluate prices

A purchasing department is in charge of continuously evaluating whether you are receiving the materials at the best possible price, in order to maximize profitability.

You need to compare prices so that you can find the best suppliers with the most sensible prices for company-specific size orders.

The purchasing department can contact alternate vendors, negotiate better prices for higher volume orders, or inquire about the possibility of obtaining lower priced products from a variety of other sources.

Vendor pre-approval
The purchasing department evaluates suppliers in terms of price, quality, customer opinions and time to complete orders, producing a list of approved suppliers.

Track orders
Orders are documented with purchase order forms. These specify important information about the materials ordered, as well as the quantity ordered.

These forms are used to ensure that ordered products are received and to track the time it takes for orders to complete.

Office work
The purchasing department handles all the documentation related to the purchase and delivery of the materials.

This means working closely with your accounting department to ensure that there is enough money to purchase items, that cash flows smoothly, and that all payments are made on time.

Policy compliance
Before making a purchase, the purchasing department has to ensure that it complies with the formalities for the acquisition and approval of the budget, and it must ensure that the materials are purchased following the general policy of the organization.

Get lower costs
The purchasing department plays an important role in maximizing business profits. Compare prices and negotiate with suppliers so that the company obtains the best possible price on the necessary products.

You can also provide savings by taking advantage of guarantees and discounts that non-specialists generally forget.

It helps to save, providing better transparency in company spending. This will allow you to negotiate better contracts and free up cash flow.

Prevent insufficient materials

The purchasing department has to identify which products are critical to the business and take appropriate measures to protect its supply chain.

To ensure that insufficient materials do not affect productivity, the purchasing department uses techniques such as multiple sourcing.

Having multiple sources means using multiple vendors that offer the same products. If there is a problem with one supplier, orders can be increased to another to compensate for the failure.

Improve quality
The purchasing department helps improve quality by setting performance goals. Then it tracks actual performance against those goals.

It is critical to measure quality characteristics using indicators for attributes, such as durability, product appearance, or timeliness of delivery.

They work closely with suppliers to develop their processes and help them improve quality.

Manage relationships

The challenge for the purchasing department is to get the supplier interested in working with the company. Make the supplier invest in a long-term relationship.

The department also has to manage relationships within the company. You have to work with internal stakeholders, such as marketing, finance, logistics, and distribution, to ensure that they are all aligned.

Seek innovation
Because the purchasing department is always in contact with a variety of external businesses, it is in an ideal position to acquire innovative products that can provide a competitive advantage to the business in terms of price, quality or convenience.

see also finance and business knowledge

What Is Bookkeeping
What Are Taxes Payable
Armand Feigenbaum Biography
What Is Zero Base Budgeting
What Is Chart of Accounts


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ตอบกลับ #2 เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 11:52:08 AM
10. Teke-Teke

This is the Urban Legend about a girl who fell under a train and was cut in half. She became a vengeful spirit that moves using her hands and elbows, dragging herself while making the sound -Tek-Tek- … if you hear that noise, youre supposed to run. Those who are caught by the Tek Tek will recieve a fate like her - shes said to slash her victims in half so that they look like her, and possibly become wandering vengeful spirits as she is.

9. Slit Mouthed Woman

You may recognise this one from a number of Japanese movies and TV shows. The traditional name for this being is Kuchi-sake-onna and dates back over 300 years ago. She is a woman who was brutally mutilated by her husband after he found she was having an affair with another Samurai. This left her in death as a restless spirit. She is said to cover her mouth with a cloth mask, a fan or a scarf. If you approach her, shell ask you if you think shes pretty. If you answer yes, she will remove the mask and when the victim screams they will be slashed from ear to ear until they look like her. Even if you say no, shes said to follow you home and brutally murder you that night.

8. Daruma-san

This urban legend is more of an old game passed down through the years. You shower in a bath, turn off the lights and chant -Daruma-san fell down- while you wash your hair … its said that you will see a woman in your mind. She is Daruma-San. Shell be standing up in a bath. Youll see her slip and fall onto an old rusty tap. It goes straight through her eye and kills her. Then, you will feel her ghostly presence behind you. If you turn around - there she is. Black tangled hair, rotting clothes, one eye is bloodshot and the other is just a bloody, hollow eye socket. The game continues even further than that if you dare, but I think thats enough for you to understand this creepy urban legend.

7. Girl From The Gap

This Japanese story comes from peoples natural fear of what lies lurking in the cracks of a home. Do you ever see something move past the hinge of a door? Is that someone looking out from inside your wardrobe? Have you ever pictured a hand reaching out from between your bed and the floor? Well it could be the girl from the gap - a spirit that lives both physically and metaphorically -between worlds-. Its said that if you ever see her, she will ask if you want to play hide and seek. At that point the game is on. When you her between a gap again, shell drag you to an other worldly hell.

6. The Red Room

This is a very modern Japanese urban legend about a pop up ad thats red with black test. In a childs voice, it simply repeats the phrase -Do you like?-. A boy who got the popup tried to close it but it kept reappearing. Then, it changed to -Do you like red?- … he keeps trying to close it but it grows large and changes again to say -Do you like the red room?- … then, the site changes. All red and black. It has a list of names on it - his friends is at the bottom. And hand reaches out towards the boys neck from a video. tHE Ending gets even more twisted but guess what, its based on a real website. Its still out there. If you can find it, youll know the gruesome legend of the red room and if the horrible ending comes true for you.

5. The Human Pillars

This legend dates back to ancient times in Japan where its known as Hito-bashira. Back then, there was a belief that a human sacrifice sealed inside a structure would make a foundation more stable. This means that many old Japanese buildings are said to contain the spirits of the people who were sacrificed during their construction. One famous example is Matsue Castle where a woman was sealed inside the foundations during its construction. Now her spirit is said to haunt the castle and whenever a woman dances there, the castle shakes violently. Many building owners in Japan are open about their building being a Human Pillar.

4. The Snake Woman

This one comes from the old Japanese folklore pf Nure-onna which translates to wet woman. She is often described as having the head of a woman and the body of a snake - with long claws, snake eyes and jet black hair.  She carries with her a childlike bundle to lure in her victims. If a person tries to pick up the baby, they find its not a child at all. The bundle then becomes very heavy and stops the victim from fleeing. The snake woman then uses her long tongue to suck all of the blood from the victims body until they die.

3. Onibaba

She is a demon women that often appears in Japanese folk folklore. She will often appear as an old woman asking for help but if you get to close, she will slice you open with a knife and eat you. She is said to be the tormented spirit of a woman who accidently killed her pregnant daughter and unborn grandchild in an effort to find a cure for her friends child being sick. She was told to bring them the liver of an unborn child but when she finally killed her victims, she found they were her own family.

2. The Dream School

This one is extra creepy because apparently if you don't forget it within a week - it will happen to you. Lets see if this is true. One night, a boy had a dream about a school. The hallways looped forever, bringing him back to the start. Staircases led back to the first floor. As he got scared, he heard footsteps behind him. He ran until he found an emergency exit with a glass box and a key next to it. The glass had been smashed and there was a note saying it could be found in room 108. When he found that room, it was empty - no students - but there were backpacks hanging off every chair. There was a pounding on the door. He opened it, terrified, to find the hallways covered with dead children. Its said that he never woke up from his dream and if you don't forget the story in one week, youll meet the same fate. Don't worry though guys

1. Onryo

This is a traditional Japanese ghost belief about a vengeful spirt that can and will physically hurt the living. Its a very scary concept if youre only familiar with the western idea of ghosts which don't really take solid forms and so cant hurt humans with physical contact. Thats not true for an Onryo. They are vengeful and full of hate, stopping at nothing to enact the suffering they received when they were alive. For any of you guys who have seen The Grudge, this spirit is the influence for that creepy girl in that movie.

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ตอบกลับ #4 เมื่อ: พฤษภาคม 16, 2021, 11:53:33 AM
Finding Travel Insurance After A Cancer Diagnosis
For people suffering from cancer and other serious conditions, finding adequate travel insurance can be tricky. But help is at hand from specialist companies providing great cover at reasonable cost

Finding suitable travel insurance after a cancer diagnosis can be fraught with problems. The premiums quoted online often cost more than the holiday or else any claim relating to the cancer is excluded.

Action is underway that should lead to better levels of insurance and more reasonable prices for those with medical conditions. But in the meantime consumers must know where to look to avoid buying inadequate cover.

All insurers and comparison websites will soon be required to signpost consumers with preexisting conditions to specialist travel insurers, whether they have offered them a quote for cover or not. It follows an investigation into this market by the regulator - the Financial Conduct Authority.

Andrew Williams, business development manager for specialist travel insurer Free Spirit, says: "The FCA is in discussions with insurers, and changes should be coming soon, which is great news for anyone with cancer or any other serious condition who has struggled to find insurance. Cover is out there for people in this situation but it can be difficult to know how to get it."

A recent survey by consumer group Which? found that when consumers with pre-existing medical conditions apply for travel insurance, around one in five are only offered cover that excludes claims arising from their condition and one in four faced inflated premiums.

"Research by Which? highlights the importance of speaking to a specialist broker or insurer when you have cancer or other medical condition," says Sarah Page, brand manager for specialist insurer Insurancewith. “Not everyone's situation is going to fit neatly into the tick boxes on a screen when applying for cover."

Ms Page adds: “At Insurancewith we can offer one-to-one medical underwriting and policies tailored to your specific needs so the price more accurately reflects the risk. This usually makes it much more affordable, particularly for someone with cancer.”

The type of cancer you have, its stage, your treatment and your medication will all affect the premium, as will your age - with older consumers typically having to pay more, as statistically they are more likely to claim.

Your choice of destination and the duration of the trip will also have a bearing on the cost. This is because the cost of healthcare in different countries varies widely. In Spain, for example, tourists will often be directed to private clinics when they need medical attention - this can vastly inflate the cost of a claim, compared to state-funded healthcare. Healthcare in the US and Australia, for example, can also be expensive.

The delay to Brexit means holidaymakers to European Union countries can continue to use the European Health Insurance Card (known as EHIC) for now - although future arrangements are unclear. EHIC entitles you to emergency state healthcare in EU countries. But consumers should not rely on this as an alternative to travel insurance. The standards of care may be much lower than with the NHS. It also won't cover the costs of repatriation.

The majority of insurers in the market use medical screening software called Healix, although a number use a different package called Protectif. The screening will ask questions about your condition and treatment to arrive at a 'medical score' before offering a premium cost for the travel insurance. As the two screening methods are slightly different it can be worthwhile getting quotes from a range of insurers that use different screening software.

Chris Rolland, chief executive at specialist insurer AllClear, says: "Declare everything. You will be asked to provide answers to set questions relating to each medical condition to ensure the insurer gets the information it needs to offer appropriate cover."

Using a broker can be helpful as it will look across a broad spectrum of providers to find you the best cover and price for your needs. The British Insurance Brokers' Association (BIBA) website at biba. org.uk can help you find one.

For most people with cancer and serious pre-existing conditions, and even those with a terminal diagnosis, it should be possible to find cover at a reasonable cost, although in some circumstances specific and tailored underwriting may be necessary.

Fi Munro, 33, from Errol, Perthshire, was diagnosed with stage-4b ovarian cancer in January 2016. She has since written a book How Long Have I Got?, set up an award-winning blog - Live Like You are Dying - and started her own businesses teaching yoga and meditation.

Fi says: "After the diagnosis I just wanted to live my life in the way I wanted and without barriers. I love to travel, but looking around for insurance that would cover me and my cancer was so difficult.

"A medical professional recommended that I speak to Insurancewith,” she adds. “I just couldn't believe the difference in its approach - and also the cost. It was so much cheaper than the mainstream brands that I'd previously been looking at."

Fi takes out single-trip cover for each holiday. Cover for her and her husband, Ewan, for a two-week trip to France in April cost ?85, for example. It is a stark contrast to the hundreds of pounds she could be charged with less specialist insurers. According to experts, it is a good idea to take out joint cover with the same insurer, even where one person in a couple does not have any preexisting medical conditions. The cost should not be any higher.

Mr Williams at Free Spirit says: "There could be complications if you need to cancel your trip due to illness, but your partner's separate insurance won't cover the cancellation."

Insurer AllClear offers Travelling companion' cover for travellers who are insured with a different provider for cancellation or curtailment as a result of the pre-existing condition of their travelling companion under AllClear. Think about purchasing travel insurance even for trips booked in the UK - because cancellation is among the main reasons for claiming on a policy for those with medical conditions.

How to Keep Premiums Down Shop Around:
Do your research and speak to different specialist insurers. A broker should be able to scour the market to find different policies to suit your needs at a reasonable price. Opt for a larger excess: By agreeing to pay a higher excess - the first part of any insurance claim that you must pay - it may be possible to lower the premium. Book holidays closer to the time of travel: If you can reduce the risk of cancellation due to ill health and can exclude cancellation cover from your insurance this should bring the premium down.

Consider changing destination and reduce length of trip: Insurance for travel to some countries will be much more expensive, so if you have not yet booked your trip talk to insurers and find out where might be cheapest. Shorter trips mean a lower risk of a claim and will bring insurance costs down.

Most insurers will ask about any treatment or prescribed medication you have taken within the last two years, or if you have been an in-or outpatient at a hospital, clinic or GP in the same time frame. It means if you had cancer three years ago, for example, but you can answer 'no' to these questions you will not need to declare the cancer and your premium should be much lower.

Cost Was Greater but Reasonable
Many holidaymakers with pre-existing conditions decide to take a gamble and travel without insurance because they feel the premium cost is unaffordable. But this is a high-risk strategy.

John Carpenter was extremely glad he had taken out annual travel insurance when he was forced to cancel a cruise he had booked for his wife Linda's birthday last year, after a lump appeared in his neck and he needed urgent chemotherapy.

John, in his early-60s, had been diagnosed with lymphoma in 2016. At that time doctors advised him to wait and see because his symptoms did not warrant immediate treatment. John and Linda, who love to travel, continued to take many holidays each year - although, due to his cancer, John now took out cover with specialist insurer AllClear, rather than buying cover through his travel agent as he always had done in the past.

“At ?500 for annual worldwide cover my condition did mean a significant increase to the cost of cover," says John. "But I felt it was reasonable considering the cruise I had planned and that it included the US, renowned for its high medical costs."

The couple received a 25% refund on the cost of their ?3,000 holiday from the cruise company and luckily, the terms of AllClear's cover meant that they could reclaim the remainder on their insurance, minus the ?250 excess.

"We were sent an email confirming our claim had been successful within two days," says John, "and the payment was in my bank account within seven days of making the claim.”

John responded well to treatment and has stem cell therapy planned. He has been advised he is well enough to go on holiday before this treatment starts and AllClear has provided a new policy, taking into account his current medical situation. He has taken out a single trip policy for ?200 for a seven-night break to Turkey.
Souce Moneywise